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Non-Disclosure Agreement under Indian Law: Everything You Need to Know

In today’s world, confidentiality is a crucial element of doing business. Companies and individuals must use Non-Disclosure Agreements (NDAs) to protect their trade secrets, client lists, and other confidential information from competitors and other third parties. In India, the law recognizes the importance of NDAs and their enforceability in courts. In this article, we’ll take a closer look at NDAs under Indian law and how they can benefit businesses.

What is a Non-Disclosure Agreement (NDA)?

A Non-Disclosure Agreement (NDA) is a legal contract between two or more parties that seeks to protect confidential information from being disclosed to third parties without authorization. NDAs are commonly used in business, especially when one party may be sharing sensitive information with another party. NDAs can be mutual or one-sided, and they can cover different types of information, such as marketing plans, product designs, or financial information.

NDAs can be beneficial for businesses in several ways. For example, they can help in building a competitive advantage by protecting confidential information from competitors. They can also help in building trust between two parties and ensure that confidential information remains confidential.

NDAs in Indian Law

In India, NDAs are recognized and enforceable under the Indian Contract Act, 1872. Under the Act, NDAs are considered legally binding agreements between the parties. In addition, Section 27 of the Act provides that any contract that restrains a person from exercising a lawful profession, trade, or business is void to that extent. This means that NDAs that have no legitimate business interest, or are too broad in scope, may not be enforceable.

Indian courts have also recognized the importance of NDAs in protecting businesses’ confidential information. In a recent case, HUL v. Gujarat Cooperative Milk Marketing Federation, the Bombay High Court enforced an NDA and granted an injunction against the defendant from disclosing confidential information to third parties.

Types of NDAs

NDAs can be classified into two main types: unilateral and mutual NDAs. In a unilateral NDA, only one party is disclosing confidential information, while in a mutual NDA, both parties are.

Unilateral NDAs are generally used when one party is sharing sensitive information with another party. For example, a software development company might use a unilateral NDA to protect its source code when sharing it with a third-party developer. Under a unilateral NDA, the recipient must keep the information confidential and is prevented from using it for any purpose other than the one stated in the agreement.

Mutual NDAs are typically used when both parties are sharing confidential information. For example, a joint venture between two companies might use a mutual NDA to protect their respective trade secrets. Mutual NDAs are more complex than unilateral NDAs and require careful drafting to ensure that both parties’ interests are protected.


NDAs are an important tool for protecting confidential information in today’s business world. Indian law recognizes the enforceability of NDAs and provides a legal framework for such agreements. By using NDAs, businesses can build a competitive advantage, establish trust with their partners, and safeguard their confidential information from competitors. If you are considering an NDA, it is important to seek legal advice to ensure that the agreement is enforceable and tailored to your specific needs.